Physical Address, Logical Address, Base Address, Limit Register
Memory allocation methods (Single Absolute Partition Scheme, Fixed Partition Allocation Schema, Variable Partition Allocation Schema)
Partition Selection Algorithm (Next fit, Best fit, and Worst fit, first fit)
Swapping, Overlays, Coalescing Holes, Compaction
Paging, Segmentation, Segmentation with paging
Memory allocation, Contiguous Allocation, Non – contiguous Allocation
Virtual Memory (definition), Page demand, page fault, SCA (clock algorithm), FIFO, LRU, NRU, Optimal Algorithm
Deadlock (definition) dead lock conditions (mutual exclusion, hold and wait, no-preemption, circular wait)
Resources (Preemptible, non-Preemptible
Resources allocation graph (rag)
Avoidance of deadlock
Dead lock detection
Recovery of deadlock
Operating system (definiation ) and function of operating system
Kernal mode , user mode , core /kernal file , booting process , IPC , context switch , intrupts and traps
Process synchornition , critical section , procss (defination) , process state , process transition , schedluing criteria , preemptive and Non Preemptive processes scheduling algorithm (STS , MTS , LTS ) , STST( R.R , FCFS , SRT , Priority ) Dispatcher
Networks and Data Communication
Data Transmission Modes
Line configuration definition (Point to point configuration , Multipoint configuration)
Components of Communication System
Computer Network & its types
Network Topology & Its Types
Network Model /Architecture & types
TCP/IP Protocol Suite
Media (Twisted-Pair Cable , Coaxial Cable , Fiber-Optic Cable , Microwaves , Satellite , Bluetooth
Database management system
Question no 1
- what is DBMS ? explain the advantages of DBMS .
- what is file processing system ? Explain the disadvantages of file processing system .
- what is components of DBMS .
- history of DBMS
- constrains of DBMS .
- database development process.
- client server database model
Question NO 2.
definition Entity , entity set , entity types , entity class , attributes and their types
generalization and specification
super type and subtype
Punjab university operates a fleet of 20 Buses that serve approximately 3,000 students . The Bus operation involves 20 regular routes plus special routes for activates , athletics events and summer sessions . The university employs 12 full time drivers and 10 to 15 part –time drivers . A dispatcher coordinates the staffing , routes and relays message to drivers regarding students and parents who call drop-off arrangements . each payment is required to be generated to one customer .
Acustomer sign one or more lease paper for boat on lease . customer identified bycust_ID , name , Address . owner has boat for lease many owner offer the boat on lease . one owner has one or more lease agreement and have one or many boats of one owner on lease owner attributes are owner_id , name , phone . there are two types of boats may be with motorboat or may Salkboat . every boat have unique_id, motor Hp, and number_Salk
draw an ER model for MA khan & co. that is a chartered Accountant firm use the following assumptions about the Human Resource department .
There are many department of company having attributes of department Number , Phone , Address .
Each person in the organization is considered to be an employee including the owner . Employee may or may not belongs to department .
There are many employees in the organization with attributes of employee_ID, Name ,Phone , address , hiring date , DOB , Sex .
An employee can go on leaves and leaves has two types casual leave and leave with pay , leave attributes are leave date , leave type , number of days .
The record of children of employee is also be recorded . The attributes for the children are children number , sex , DOB , name .
Employee supervise projects running in the organization and each project has attributes of , project_id , project name , start_date and completion_date.
Company has Some laboratories in it and every project is completed in some laboratory , attributes laboratory_ID , Laboratory_name , address .
A real estate firm lists property for sale. The following describes this firm: The firm has a number of sales office in several states. Attributes of sales office include Office-number (identifier/key) and Location .Each sales office is assigned one or more employees. Attributes of employee include Employee-ID (identifier/key) and Employee-Name. An employee must be assigned to only one sales office. For each sales office, there is always one employee assigned to manage that office. An employee may manage only the sales office to which he/she is assigned. The firm lists property for sale. Attributes of property include Property_Id (identifier) and Location. Components of Location include Address, City, State and Zip-Code. Each unit of property must be listed with one (and only one) of the sales offices. A sales office may have any number properties listed, or may have no properties listed. Each unit of property has one or more owners. Attributes of owners are Owner-ID (identifier) and Owner-Name. An owner may own one or more units of property. An attribute if the association between property and owner is Percent-Owned.
A laboratory has several chemists who work on one or more projects. Chemist also may use certain kinds of equipment on each project. A chemist has a unique employee ID, name and phone number. Each project has a unique id, a unique name and a start date. Equipment items have a unique serial number, a description and a cost.
The organization wishes to record the date on which a piece of equipment was assigned to a chemist working on a specified project.
Each chemist must be assigned to at least one project and one equipment item. An equipment item need not be assigned, and a project need not be assigned either a chemist or an equipment item. A chemist cannot work on a project without equipment.
The Oakwood Council Library has a number of branches and a number of books at each branch. Each branch has a unique name and location. Borrowers can register with a number of branches and can borrow books from any of these branches. Each book has a unique library code, title, one or more authors, category and publisher. Borrowers have a unique is, name and address. Each book borrowed has to be returned on or before a due date.
A SSQ university consists of a number of departments . each department offers several courses . A number of modules makes up each course . students enroll in particular course and take modules towards the completion of that course . each module in taught by a lecturer from the appropriate department and each lecturer tutors a group of students .
A database is to be designed for a Car Rental Co. (CRC). The information required includes a description of cars, subcontractors (i.e. garages), company expenditure, company revenues and customers. Cars are to be described by such data as: make, model, year of production, engine size, and fuel type, number of passengers, registration number, purchase price, rent price and insurance details. It is the company policy not to keep any car for a period exceeding one year. All major repairs and maintenance are done by subcontractors(i.e. franchised garages), with whom CRC has long term agreements. Therefore the data about garages to be kept in the database includes garage names, address, range of services and the like. Some garages require payments immediately after a repair has been made; with others CRC has made arrangements or credit facilities. Company expenditure are to be registered for all outgoings connected with purchases, repairs, maintenance, insurance etc. Similarly the cash inflow coming from all sources, car hire, and car sales, insurance claims – must be kept of file. CRC maintains a reasonably stable client base. For this privileged category of customers special credit card facilities are provided. These customers may also book in advance a particular car. These reservations can be made for any period of time up to one month. Causal customers must pay a deposit for an estimated time of rental, unless they wish to pay by credit card. All major credit cards are accepted,. Personal details (such as name, address, telephone number, driving license number) about each customers are kept in the database.
A large bank operates several divisions. Information Technology (IT) is operated as one of these divisions. Within the IT division are many departments that are managed by one manger and all IT employee belong to one of these departments. The IT division assigns its employee to one or more ongoing projects in the bank. A project may be planned, but not have any employees assigned to it for several months. Each project will have a single employee assigned who act as a project leader.
In an educational institute, there are several departments and student belongs to one of them. Each department has a unique department number, a name, a location, phone number and is head by a professor. Professors have a unique employee id, name, phone number. We like to keep track of following details regarding student: name, unique roll number, sex, phone no., DOB, age and one or more email addresses.
Students have a local address consisting of the hostel name and the room number. They also have home address consisting of House number, street, city and PIN, it is assumed that all students reside in the hostels.
A course taught in a semester of the year is called section. There can be several sections of the same course in a semester, there are identified by the section. Each section is taught by a different professor and has its own timings and room to meet. Students enroll for several sections in a semester. Each course has a name, number of credits and the department that offers it. A course may have other courses as pre-requisites. Professors also undertake research projects. These are sponsored by funding agencies and have a specific start data, end date and amount of money given. More than on professor can be enrolled in a project also a professor may be simultaneously working on several projects. A project has unique project ID.
Question No 3
Functional dependence , partial dependence , transitive dependence , full functional dependence , Atomic value , repeating group , properties of relation , integrity , entity integrity , domain integrity , referential integrity , relation , degree of relation and relationship , types of Keys
Question No 4
SQL , group by clause , order by clause , where clause , aggregate function .
Insert command , create command , primary key and foreign key constraint